Normally if radiocommunication is determined to have been lost, 7600 on the transponder will let ATC know this. This situation is called as RCF (Radio Communication Failure). The ATC has their own SOP (standard operation procedures) for this type of scenario.
The pilot can communicate through other aircraft or he can land/ take off based on visual signalling (Aldis lamp signals) by ATC.
If the communication problem lies with the aircraft, they have to land at the nearest airport.
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