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Вопрос звучит так: What factors have to be taken into consideration when calculating the amount of fuel needed? How do you calculate the fuel required for the flight?

block fuel - вес общего количества топлива перед запуском двигателей.
taxi fuel  - запас топлива на выруливание
trip fuel - запас топлива на маршрут

Block Fuel is the total amount of fuel that there is in the tanks when the airplane is still located at the apron.
You should calculate your Block Fuel by adding together the following figures: Taxi Fuel, Trip Fuel, Contingency Fuel, Alternate Fuel, Final Reserve Fuel, Additional Fuel.
Taxi Fuel is the amount of fuel required to startup, taxi and hold before take-off.
Trip Fuel should include fuel- For the takeoff, Climb, Cruise, Descent,Approach and landing.
Trip fuel shall be calculated in a realistic way, using the: 1) Performance Tables shipped with the aircraft itself. They give you the fuel consumption for each engine settings at each altitude.
2) Weather forecast: because there can be a necessity to make a longer route because of weather. What’s the average wind component?
3) Actual masses: a heavier airplane needs more fuel.
4) Air Traffic Service restrictions.
Contingency Fuel is for unpredicted events. That is, contingency fuel is meant to compensate for deviations: Of an individual aircraft from the expected fuel consumption data, From the forecast weather, From the planned routing/altitudes, Contingency Fuel is the higher of: 5% of planned trip fuel, 5 minutes of flight at holding speed at 1500ft.
Alternate Fuel is the fuel you need to fly from the destination airport to the alternate. You shall calculate it using the same rules applied to Trip Fuel.
Final Reserve Fuel is the minimum amount of fuel you always have onboard after landing.
If you find yourself flying with less than the Final Reserve Fuel, you should declare an emergency (Mayday Fuel).
Contingency, Alternate and Final Reserve cover most cases. There are two more cases, however, where you want to load more fuel: No Alternate: your destination is an isolated aerodrome,

No Enroute Alternate and Inability to Hold Height:  you’re long way from home and a malfunction does not allow you to fly at altitude, thus causing higher fuel consumption.

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